Publications on Gas Bearings

 

MAJOR APPLICATION: Oil-Free Turbomachinery, Micro-Turbines, Turbo exanders & blowers,  etc

Sponsors: National Science Foundation (03-06), Turbomachinery Research Consortium (00-08, 11), USAF-Wright Patterson (04-05), State of Texas Energy Resources Program (01-02), Capstone Turbine Corp. (2007), NASA GRC (2007-2009), Borg-Warner (11-12)

 

TOPICS (select below) updated March 4, 2013

 

Gas Foil Bearings including metal mesh foil bearings

Gas Bearings (rigid and tilting pad bearings)
Computational Analyses

Technical reports to sponsors

 

Magazine Articles

San Andrés, L., 2004, “Gas bearings will soon be widely used,” Research makes a difference, Turbomachinery International, Vol. 45, 3, pp. 35.

 

METAL MESH FOIL BEARINGS

 

San Andrés, L., and Chirathadam, T., 2013, “Measurements of Rotordynamic Response in a High Temperature Rotor Supported on Two Metal Mesh Foil Bearings,” ASME GT2013-94321.

 

San Andrés, L., and Chirathadam, T., 2013, “Performance Characteristics of Metal Mesh Foil Bearings: Predictions vs. Measurements,” ASME GT2013-95975.

 

San Andrés, L., and Chirathadam, T., 2012, “A Metal Mesh Foil Bearing and a Bump-Type Foil Bearing: Comparison of Performance for Two Similar Size Gas Bearings,”ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, vol. 134 (October), 102501 [ASME paper GT2012-68437.

 

San Andrés, L., and Chirathadam, T., 2011, “Metal Mesh Foil Bearings: Effect of Excitation Frequency on Rotordynamic Force Coefficients,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, vol. 133 (Dec), 122503 [ASME Paper GT2011-45257]

 

San Andrés, L., and Chirathadam T.A., 2011, “Identification of Rotordynamic Force Coefficients of a Metal Mesh Foil Bearing Using Impact Load Excitations,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, vol. 133 (Nov), 112501 [ASME paper GT2010-22440]

 

San Andrés, L., Chirathadam, T., Ryu, K., and Kim, T.H., 2010, “Measurements of Drag Torque, Lift-Off Journal Speed and Temperature in a Metal Mesh Foil Bearing,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, Vol. 132(Nov), p. 112503.

San Andrés, L., Chirathadam, T. A., and Kim, T.H., 2010, “Measurements of Structural Stiffness and Damping Coefficients in a Metal Mesh Foil Bearing,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, Vol. 132(March), p. 032503 (ASME Paper No.  GT2009-59315)

 

 

GAS FOIL BEARINGS (bump type)

 

San Andrés, L.,  and Ryu, K.,  2013, “On the Failure of a Gas Foil Bearing: High Temperature Operation without Axial Cooling Flow,  ASME GT2013-94244

 

Ryu, K., and San Andrés, L., 2012, ”Effect of Cooling Flow on The Operation of a Hot Rotor-Gas Foil Bearing System,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, vol. 134 (October), 102511 [ASME paper GT2012-68074]. 2012 Best paper Rotordynamics Paper Award –ASME (IGTI)

 

De Santiago, O., and San Andrés, L., “Parametric Study of Bump Foil Gas Bearings for Industrial Applications,” ASME GT2011-46767

 

San Andrés, L.., and Ryu, K., 2011, “On the Nonlinear Dynamics of Rotor-Foil Bearing Systems: Effects of Shaft Acceleration, Mass Imbalance and Bearing Mechanical Energy Dissipation,” ASME paper GT2011-45763

 

San Andrés, L., Ryu, K., and Kim, T.H.,  2011, “Identification of Structural Stiffness and Energy Dissipation parameters in a 2nd Generation Foil Bearing; Effect of Shaft Temperature”, ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, vol. 133 (March) , pp. 032501

 

San Andrés, L., Ryu, K., and Kim, T-H, 2011, “Thermal Management and Rotordynamic Performance of a Hot Rotor-Gas Foil Bearings System. Part 1: Measurements”, ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, vol. 133 (June), 062501 [ASME paper GT2010-22981]

 

San Andrés, Kim, T-H, and Ryu, K., 2011, “Thermal Management and Rotordynamic Performance of a Hot Rotor-Gas Foil Bearings System. Part 2: Predictions Versus Test Data,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, , vol. 133 (June),  062502 [ASME paper GT2010-22983]

 

Howard, S., and San Andrés, L., 2011, “A New Analysis Tool Assessment for Rotordynamic Modeling of Gas Foil Bearings,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, vol. 133 (Feb.), 022505 [ASME  paper GT2010-22508 (NASA/TM-2010-216354)]

 

San Andrés, L., and Kim, T.H., 2010, “Thermohydrodynamic Analysis of Bump Type Gas Foil Bearings: A Model Anchored to Test Data,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, Vol. 132 (April), p. 042504 (ASME Paper No.  GT2009-59919)

 

Kim, T. H., and San Andrés, L., 2010,Thermohydrodynamic Model Predictions and Performance Measurements of Bump-Type Foil Bearing for Oil-Free Turboshaft Engines in Rotorcraft Propulsion Systems,” ASME Journal of Tribology, Vol. 132(January), p. 011701 2010 Best Paper Award for ASME Journal of Tribology (2011 IJTC Conference, LA)

 

EDUCATION San Andrés, L., Camero, J., Muller, S., Chirathadam, T., and Ryu, K., 2010, “Measurements of  Drag Torque, Lift Off Speed, and Structural Parameters in a 1st Generation Floating Gas Foil Bearing”, Proc. of the 8th IFToMM International Conference on Rotordynamics, September 2010, Seoul, Korea, Paper P-1113

 

Kim, T.H., L. San Andrés , J. Nourse, J.L. Wade, and D. Lubell, 2009, “Modeling of a Gas Foil Bearing for Microturbine Applications: Predictions versus Experimental Stiffness and Damping Force Coefficients,” World Tribology Congress 20009, Kyoto, Japan, September 6-11, 2009

 

Kim, T.H., Breedlove, A., and San Andrés, L., 2009, “Characterization of Foil Bearing Structure at Increasing Temperatures: Static Load and Dynamic Force Performance,” ASME Journal of Tribology, Vol. 131(3), pp. 041703-(1-9)

 

San Andrés, L., and Kim, T.H., 2009, “Thermohydrodynamic Model Predictions and Performance Measurements of Bump-type Foil Bearing for Oil-Free Turboshaft Engines in Rotorcraft Propulsion Systems,” American Helicopter Society 65th Annual Forum, Grapevine, Texas, May 27-29, 2009

 

Kim, T.H., and San Andrés, L., 2009, "Effects of a Mechanical Preload on the Dynamic Force Response of Gas Foil Bearings - Measurements and Model Predictions," Tribology Transactions, Vol. 52, pp. 569-580

 

Kim, T. H., and San Andrés, L., 2009, “Effect of Side End Pressurization on the Dynamic Performance of Gas Foil Bearings – A Model Anchored to Test Data,” ASME Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 131(1), pp. 012501. ( ASME Paper GT2008-50571)  2009 Best PAPER Rotordynamics IGTI Structures and Dynamics Committee

 

EDUCATION San Andrés, L., Kim, T.H., Ryu, K., Chirathadam, T. A., Hagen, K., Martinez, A., Rice, B., Niedbalski, N., Hung, W., and Johnson, M., 2009, “Gas Bearing Technology for Oil-Free Microturbomachinery – Research Experience for Undergraduate (REU) Program at Texas A&M University,” ASME Paper No.  GT2009-59920

 

Kim, T.H., and L. San Andrés, 2008, “Effect of Mechanical Preloads on the Dynamic Performance of Gas Foil Bearings”, Paper IJTC2008-71195, STLE/ASME International Joint Tribology Conference, Miami, Fla, October 2008

 

San Andrés, L., and Kim, T.H., 2009, “Analysis of Gas Foil Bearings Integrating FE Top Foil Models,” Tribology International, 42(2009), pp. 111-120.

 

Kim, T.H., San Andrés, L., and Breedlove, A., 2008, “Characterization of Foil Bearing Structure for Increasing Shaft Temperatures: Part II – Dynamic Force Performance,” Paper GT2008-50570

 

Kim, T.H., Breedlove, A., and San Andrés, L., 2008, “Characterization of Foil Bearing Structure for Increasing Shaft Temperatures: Part I – Static Load Performance,” Paper GT2008-50567

 

Kim, T.H., and L. San Andrés, 2008, “Heavily Loaded Gas Foil Bearings: a Model Anchored to Test Data,” ASME Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, Vol. 130(1), pp. 012504-1-8. (ASME Paper GT 2005-68486)

 

San Andrés, L., and Kim, T.H., 2008, “Forced Nonlinear Response of Gas Foil Bearing Supported Rotors,” Tribology International, 41(8), pp. 704-715

 

San Andrés, L., and T.H. Kim, 2007, “Issues on Instability and Force Nonlinearity in Gas Foil Bearing Supported Rotors,” 43rd AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference & Exhibit, Cincinnati, OH, July 9-11, Paper AIAA-2007-5094.

 

San Andrés, L., and T-H Kim, 2007, “Improvements to the Analysis of Gas Foil Bearings: Integration of Top Foil 1D and 2D Structural Models,” ASME Paper No GT2007-27249

 

San Andrés, L., D. Rubio, and T.H. Kim, 2007, “Rotordynamic Performance of a Rotor Supported on Bump Type Foil Gas Bearings: Experiments and Predictions,” ASME Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 129(3), pp. 850-857 (ASME Paper GT 2006-91238)

 

Kim, T-H, and L., San Andrés, 2007, “Analysis of Gas Foil Bearings with Piecewise Linear Elastic Supports.”  Tribology International, 40, pp. 1239-1245.

 

Kim, T.H., and L. San Andrés, 2005, “Analysis of Gas Foil Bearings with Piecewise Linear Elastic Supports,” Paper WTC 2005-63397, III World Tribology Conference, Washington D.C., September

 

Kim, T.H., and L. San Andrés, 2006, “Limits for High Speed Operation of Gas Foil Bearings,” ASME Journal of Tribology, 128, pp. 670-673. [Paper WTC 2005-63398. III World Tribology Conference, Washington D.C., September]

 

Rubio, D., and L. San Andrés, 2007, “Structural Stiffness, Dry-Friction Coefficient and Equivalent Viscous Damping in a Bump-Type Foil Gas Bearing,” ASME Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 129, pp. 494-502. (ASME Paper GT 2005-68384) 2005 Best PAPER Rotordynamics IGTI Structures and Dynamics Committee

 

Kim, Tae-Ho., and L. San Andrés, 2005, “Heavily Loaded Gas Foil Bearings: a Model Anchored to Test Data,” ASME Paper GT 2005-68486

 

Rubio, D., and L., San Andrés, 2006, “Bump-Type Foil Bearing Structural Stiffness: Experiments and Predictions”, ASME Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 128, pp. 653-660.  (ASME Paper GT 2004-53611).

 

Petter, C., 2006, “Analysis of Gas Foil Bearings and Test Data Predictions,” ASME Regional Student Conference, District E – Eastern Area (2006 Spring Student Conference, April 6-8, University of ArkansasFayetteville, AR

 

San Andrés, L., 1995, "Turbulent Flow Foil Bearings for Cryogenic Applications," ASME Journal of Tribology, Vol. 117, 1, pp. 185-195 (ASME Paper 94-TRIB-33)

 

GAS BEARINGS – Flexure Pivot Tilting Pad

San Andrés, L., Niu, Y., and Ryu, K, 2010, “Dynamic Response of a Rotor-Hybrid Gas Bearing System Due To Base Induced Periodic Motions,” ASME  paper GT2010-22277

 

San Andrés, L., and Ryu, K., 2008, “Hybrid Gas Bearings with Controlled Supply Pressure to Eliminate Rotor Vibrations while Crossing System Critical Speeds,” ASME Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, Vol. 130(6), pp. 062505-1-10 (ASME Paper GT2008-50393))

 

San Andrés, L., and K. Ryu, 2008, “Flexure Pivot Tilting Pad Gas Bearings: Operation with Worn Clearances and Two Load-Pad Configurations,” ASME Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, Vol. 130, pp. 042506-1-10 (ASME Paper No GT2007-27127).

 

Ryu, K., and L. San Andrés, 2006, “Measurements of Rotordynamic Response of a Rotor Supported on Hybrid Flexure Pivot Tilting Pad Gas Bearings” Paper IJTC 2006-12371, ASME/STLE International Joint Tribology Conference, San Antonio, TX, October 2006

 

Zhu, S. and L., San Andrés, 2007, “Rotordynamic Performance of Flexure Pivot Hydrostatic Gas Bearings for Oil-Free Turbomachinery,” Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 129(4), pp. 1020-1027. (ASME Paper GT 2004-53621)

 

Wilde, D., and L., San Andrés, 2004, “Experimental Lift Off Characteristics and the Effect of a Low Friction Coating on the Startup Response of Simple Gas Hybrid Bearings for Oil-Free Turbomachinery,” ASME Paper GT 2004-54183

 

GAS BEARINGS – Rigid Surface

Zhu, X., and L. San Andrés, 2005, “Experimental Response of a Rotor Supported on Rayleigh Step Gas Bearings,” ASME Paper GT 2005-68296.

 

Wilde, D.A., and San Andrés, L., 2006, “Experimental Response of Simple Gas Hybrid Bearings for Oil-Free Turbomachinery,” ASME Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 128, pp. 626-633. (ASME Paper No. GT 2003-38833, 2003 BEST Rotordynamics Paper Award –ASME (IGTI))

 

Wilde, D.A., and San Andrés, L., 2006, “Comparison of Rotordynamic Analysis Predictions with the Test Response of Simple Gas Hybrid Bearings for Oil Free Turbomachinery,” ASME Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 128, pp. 634-643 (ASME Paper No. GT2003-38859, 2003 BEST Rotordynamics Paper Award –ASME (IGTI))

 

Wilde, D.A., and San Andrés, L., 2003, “Experimental Response of Simple Gas Hybrid Bearings for Oil-Free Turbomachinery,” ASME Paper GT 2003-38833 (accepted for publication at ASME Journal of Gas Turbines and Power)

 

ANALYSIS OF GAS BEARINGS  (finite differences and finite element based)

San Andrés, L., 2006, “Hybrid Flexure Pivot-Tilting Pad Gas Bearings: Analysis and Experimental Validation,” ASME Journal of Tribology, 128, pp. 551-558. (Paper IJTC 2006-12026)

 

San Andrés, L., 2005,  HYBRID GAS BEARINGS FOR OIL-FREE TURBOMACHINERY: Experiments and model validation, 1st International Conference on Experiments/Process/System Modellng/Simulation/Optimization, Athens, Greece, July 6-9

Pan, C., and L. San Andrés, 2005, “The Narrow Groove Bearing Analysis Revisited,” Paper WTC 2005-63803, III World Tribology Conference, Washington D.C., September

 

Delgado, A., L., San Andrés, and J. Justak, 2004, “Analysis of Performance and Rotordynamic Force Coefficients of Brush Seals with Reverse Rotation Ability”, ASME Paper GT 2004-53614

 

San Andrés, L., and D. Wilde, 2001, “Finite Element Analysis of Gas Bearings for Oil-Free Turbomachinery,” Revue Européenne des Eléments Finis, Vol. 10 (6/7), pp. 769-790


Faria, M., and L. San Andrés, 2000, “On the Numerical Modeling of High Speed Hydrodynamic Gas Bearings,” ASME Journal of Tribology, Vol. 122, 1, pp. 124-130 (ASME Paper 99-TRIB-2).

 

Zirkelback, N., and L. San Andrés, 1999, "Effect of Frequency Excitation on the Force Coefficients of Spiral Groove Thrust Bearings and Face Gas Seals,” ASME Journal of Tribology, Vol. 121, 4, pp. 853-863 (ASME Paper 98-TRIB-12).

 

Research Progress Reports to NASA GRC (2007-2009)
(available to the public – 8 Quarter reports – request for them)

Research Progress Reports to the Turbomachinery Research Consortium (TRC):
(available only to the industrial members of the Turbomachinery Research Consortium)

TRC-BC001-12, San Andrés, L., and Chirathadam, T., “Measurements of Rotordynamic Response in a High temperature Rotor Supported on Two Metal Mesh Foil Bearings,”

TRC-B&C-01-10, San Andrés, L., and T. Chirathadam, “More on Metal Mesh Foil Bearings:  Effect of Excitation Frequency on Dynamic Force Coefficients”.

 

TRC-B&C-1-09, San Andrés, L., and Y. Niu, “Dynamic Response of a Rotor-Air Bearing System due to Base Induced Periodic Motions”.

 

TRC-B&C-2-09, San Andrés, L., K. Ryu, and T-H Kim, “Measurements of Rotordynamic Response in a Hot Rotor Gas Foil Bearing System”.

 

TRC-B&C-3-09, San Andrés, L., and T. Chirathadam, “Measurement of Bearing Drag Torque, Lift Off Speed and Identification of structural Stiffness and Damping in a Metal Mesh Foil Bearing,”.

 

TRC-B&C-5-08, San Andrés, L., and Kim, T.H., “Measurements of Structural Stiffness and Damping in a Metal Mesh Bearing and Development of a Test Rig for Foil Gas Bearings”.

 

TRC-B&C-1-08, San Andrés, L., and K. Ryu, “Dynamic Forced Response of a Rotor-Hybrid Gas Bearing System due to Intermittent Shocks”.

 

TRC-B&C-2-08, San Andrés, L., and. T.H. Kim, “Thermohydrodynamic Analysis of Bump Type Gas Foil Bearings: Model and Predictions”.

 

TRC-B&C-3-08, San Andrés, L., and. T.H. Kim, “Rotordynamic Measurements on a High Temperature Rotor Supported on Gas Foil Bearings".

 

TRC-B&C-1-07, San Andrés, L., and K. Ryu, 2007,“Hybrid Gas Bearings with Controlled Supply Pressure to Eliminate Rotor Vibrations while Crossing System Critical Speeds”.

 

TRC-B&C-2-07, San Andrés, L., and. T.H. Kim, 2007, “Effect of Side Feed Pressurization on the Performance of Shimmed Foil Gas Bearings – Part I: Experimental Verification”.

 

TRC-B&C-3-07, San Andrés, L., and. T.H. Kim, 2007, “Effect of Side Feed Pressurization on the Performance of Shimmed Foil Gas Bearings – Part II: Model, Predictions and Comparisons to Rotordynamic Measurements".

 

TRC-B&C-1-06, San Andrés, L., and Kim, T-H, 2006, “Computational Analysis of Gas Foil Bearings Integrating 1D and 2D Finite Element Models for Top Foil”.

 

TRC-B&C-2-06, San Andrés, L., and Kim, T-H, 2006, “Further Imbalance Response Measurements of Rotor Supported on Bump-Type Gas Foil Bearings – Operation to 50 krpm.

 

TL-B&C-1-06, San Andrés, L., and Ryu, K., Test Results for Load-On-Pad and Load-Between-Pad Hybrid Flexure Pivot Tilting Pad Gas Bearings".

 

TRC-B&C-1-05, San Andrés, L., 2005, "Hybrid Tilting Pad Gas Bearings: Analysis & Experimental Validation".

 

TRC-SEAL-3-05, Delgado, A., and L. San Andrés, 2005, " Hybrid Tilting Pad Gas Bearings: Analysis & Experimental Validation".


TRC-B&C-2-05, Rubio, D., and L. San Andrés, 2005, " Rotordynamic Performance of a Rotor Supported on Gas Foil Bearings",

 

TRC-B&C-2-04, Zhu, X., and L San Andrés, 2004, “Experimental Response of a Rotor Supported on Rayleigh Step Gas Bearings”.

 

TRC-B&C-4-03, San Andrés, L., and X. Zhu, 2003, “Experimental Response of a Rotor Supported on Flexure Pivot Hydrostatic Pad Gas Bearings”.

 

TRC-B&C-5-03, Rubio, D. and L. San Andrés, 2003, “Bump Type Foil Bearing Structural Stiffness: Experiments and Predictions”.

 

TRC-B&C-2-02, Deborah Wilde, 2002, “Experimental Response of Gas Hybrid Bearings for High Speed Oil-Free Turbomachinery”.

 

TRC-RD-1-99, Diaz, S., T. Beets, G. Dunn, and L. San Andrés, 1999, “High Speed Test Rig for Identification of Gas Journal Bearing Performance: Design, Constraints and Fabrication"

 

TRC-Seal-7-98, Zirkelback, N., and L. San Andrés, 1998, “Computational Analysis of Spiral Groove Thrust Bearings and Face Seals”.

 

TRC-SEAL-7-97, Zirkelback, N., and L. San Andrés, 1997, “Computational Analysis of Compressible Fluid Spiral Groove Face Seals”.